Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute disorder that presents a multistage illness progressing from initial psychiatric symptoms to memory disturbances, seizures, dyskinesia and catatonia. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum of patients one can find antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system attacking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The treatments include first-line immunotherapies: steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or plasmapheresis (or plasma exchange); and second-line immunotherapy such as rituximab or cyclophosphamide. This disease occurs more often in females than in males. A proportion of female patients have also been detected with ovarian tumors.



Movies about Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis:
  1. Brain on fire
  2. 8年越しの花嫁



  1. Wang, H.* (2016). Efficacies of treatments for anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark, 21:651-63. (SCI)
  2. Wang, H.* (2017). Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and Vaccination, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18, 193. (SCI)
  3. Wang, H.* (2018). A protocol for investigating the association of vaccination and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition), 10:229-237. Matlab code.
  4. Wang, H.* (2019). Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis, Vaccination and Viruses. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 25(43),4579-88. (SCI)
  5. Wang, H.* (2019). Phylogenetic Analysis to Explore the Association Between Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and Tumors Based on microRNA Biomarkers, Biomolecules, 9(10), 572. (SCI)
  6. Wang, H.* (2020). Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis: Efficacy of Treatment for Male Patients and miRNA Biomarker, Current Medicinal Chemistry, 27(24):4138-4151. (SCI)
  7. Wang, H.* (2022). COVID-19, Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and MicroRNA. Fronters in Immunology, 13:825103. (SCI)

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